Abutilon eremitopetalum

Caum (1934)

This name is accepted

Kingdom: Viridiplantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class/Clade: Eudicot-Rosids Order: Malvales Family: Malvaceae Genus: Abutilon

hidden petal abutilon

Description

Key Characters:

Growth Form: Shrubs, closely grayish pubescent with stellate and simple glandular hairs.

Stems:

Roots:

Leaves: Leaves simple. Alternate. Blades deeply cordate–ovate, 7–12 cm long. Apex acute to acuminate. Surfaces grayish-green, pubescent with stellate and simple glandular hairs. Margins crenate–dentate. Petioles about as long as blades, sometimes pilose with simple hairs. Stipules usually present.

Flowers: Flowers solitary or paired in the leaf axils, exceeded by the leaves, pedicels 1.5-4 cm long, articulate with the calyx sometimes pilose with simple hairs and stellate and glandular pubescent; involucel absent. Flowers bisexual (perfect). Calyx cup-shaped to suburceolate, 1–1.5 cm long; 5-lobed, lobes dentate, 1–3 mm long, pubescent within, valvate in bud. Petals included in calyx, greenish with brighter green, inflexed margins, lower surface reddish, 0.5–1 cm long, up to 9 mm wide. Stamens 5 to numberous, monadelphous, forming a staminal column, staminal column exserted, whitish to yellowish, 2–2.8 cm long; antheriferous in a terminal cluster; anthers monothecal. Pollen globose, echinate. Ovary superior, (1-)3-celled to many-celled, carpels 5 to numerous, borne in a single whorl or rarely seemingly superposed whorls; ovule placentation axile, each with 2-9 ovules in a vertical row; style exceeding the staminal column; style branches coral-colored, as many as carpels; stigmas terminal, capitate, green, scarcely expanded.

Fruit: Schizocarps often tardily separating; cylindrical; 8–10 mm long; 10–13 mm in diameter; pilose; mericarps usually oblong in lateral view; 8–9; 8–10 mm long; apex acute; lateral walls usually smooth; loculicidal dehiscence complete or partial. Seeds asymmetrically reniform; upto 2.8 mm long; matted white or brown pubescent; with or without endosperm.

Ploidy:

Habitat: Extremely rare in dry forest.

Elevation Range: 210–520 m.

Historical Distribution

Uses and Culture

USES

PROPAGATION/CULTIVATION

  • The seeds of Abutilon eremitopetalum are contained in a cylindrical fruit about 1/2 inch in diameter. The fruit is dry when mature and splits into 8 or 9 segments. The 1/16 inch seeds are somewhat kidney-shaped and covered with white or brown fuzz.
  • Abutilon sp. have a high germination rate (95%). Soaking shortens the germination time from 3 to 6 months for untreated seed to 2 to 4 weeks for soaked seeds. Soaking recommendations vary from 1 to 24 hours using either room temperature or hot water. Soak the seeds until they sink, and discard any that float. Seeds should be sown 1/8 inch deep in a well-draining medium such as 3 parts #2 perlite to 1 part #4 Sunshine Mix or 1 part peat to 1 part perlite to 1 part soil. Keep containers in part shade until seeds germinate.
  • Seed should be dried before being stored. Storage recommendations vary; silica gel and refrigeration may improve the length of time seeds remain viable. Ragone reports 65% germination rate for seeds that had been stored with desiccant at ambient temperature (80 degrees F) and humidity (25%) for 3 months. These seeds were soaked in cold water for 1/2 hour before sowing and took 4 months to germinate. In this report, germination percentages for all seeds stored longer than 3 months dropped to almost zero regardless of treatment before sowing. (Bornhorst 1996; Ragone 1993; Stratton 1998; Wagner 1990). [Data from Herring, E. C., & Criley, R. A. (2003). The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Web Site: Developing a Webbased Information Resource. HortTechnology, 13(3), 545-548. https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/hawnprop/]

Natural History

Statewide Status

Endemic

Island Status

Kaua'i Only found in cultivation
O'ahu Only found in cultivation
Lana'i Endemic

Dispersal Agents


Pollinators

Notes

  • Description digitized by Ellena Ruiz
  • Description digitized from the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii
  • Schizocarp cylindrical,8-10 mm long, 10-13 mm in diameter,pilose, mericarps 8-9, 8-10 mm long, apex acute.style branches coral-colored;

Bibliography

Name Published In: Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 10(15): 7 (1934)

Other References

Wagner et al. 1990:871 (L)

Occurrences

SNo. Scientific Name Scientific Name Authorship Locality Habitat Basis of Record Recorded By Record Number Island Source Date
1 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Munro, G.C. 5 Lanai BISH 5/28/1927
2 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN r. palmer & d. orr 815 Lanai US 3/18/2004
3 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Hobdy, R. W.; Garnett 3016 Lanai US 2/20/1989
4 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Perlman, S. P. 6405 Lanai US 8/31/1987
5 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Perlman, S. P. 6405 Lanai US 8/31/1987
6 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN s. p. perlman 6405 Lanai US 8/31/1987
7 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN k. r. wood, r. hobdy & s. p. perlman 338 Lanai US 5/15/1990
8 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Wood, K. R.; Hobdy, R.; Perlman, S. P. 338 Lanai US 5/15/1990
9 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN r. hobdy & garnett 3016 Lanai US 2/20/1989
10 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Palmer, R.; Orr, D. 815 Lanai US 3/18/2004
11 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN t. w. flynn 3434 Oahu US
12 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Associated with wiliwili, Canthium, Dodonaea, Diospyros, etc. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN garnett, w. collector number: 89-2 Lanai BISH 2/20/1989
13 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Judd Jr., A.F. s.n. Oahu BISH 4/15/1934
14 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information At edge of dry forest. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Degener, O. 24235 Lanai BISH 8/9/1957
15 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Xerophytic forest, planted here by G. C. Munro. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Fosberg, F.R. 12543 Lanai BISH 12/1/1935
16 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Flynn, T. 3434 Kauai BISH 6/6/1989
17 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Judd Jr., A.F. s.n. Oahu BISH 11/7/1936
18 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN s. p. perlman 6405 Lanai US 8/31/1987
19 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN fosberg, f.r. collector number: 12528 Kauai BISH 12/1/1935
20 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Dry forest of Osmanthus, Myoporum etc. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN st.john, h. eames, a.j.; hosaka, e.y. collector number: 18801 Lanai BISH 4/12/1938
21 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN munro, g.c. collector number: 005 Lanai BISH 5/28/1927
22 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information N facing slope in Diospyros sandwicensis lowland dry forest with Sida fallax, Erythrina sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Rauvolfia, Prosopis pallida, Lantana, Aleurites, Wikstroemia, Leucaena leucocephala. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN perlman, s.p. collector number: 6405 Lanai BISH 8/31/1987
23 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN munro, g.c. collector number: 511 Lanai BISH 2/11/1930
24 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information open scrub PRESERVED_SPECIMEN degener, o. degener, i.; desha, e. collector number: 24235 Maui BISH 8/9/1957
25 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Scattered in open understory of a Lama and Wiliwili Forest. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Hobdy, R.W. 3016 Lanai BISH 2/20/1989
26 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Xerophytic forest, planted here by G. C. Munro. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN fosberg, f.r. collector number: 12543 Lanai BISH 12/1/1935
27 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Scattered in open understory of a Lama and Wiliwili Forest. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN hobdy, r.w. garnett, w. collector number: 3016 Lanai BISH 2/20/1989
28 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Munro, G.C. 265 Lanai BISH 1/20/1928
29 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN munro, g.c. collector number: 265 Lanai BISH 1/20/1928
30 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN judd jr., a.f. collector number: s.n. Oahu BISH 4/15/1934
31 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information N facing slope in Diospyros sandwicensis lowland dry forest with Sida fallax, Erythrina sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Rauvolfia, Prosopis pallida, Lantana, Aleurites, Wikstroemia, Leucaena leucocephala. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Perlman, S. 6405 Lanai BISH 8/31/1987
32 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Dry forest of Osmanthus, Myoporum etc. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN St. John, H. 18801 Lanai BISH 4/12/1938
33 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN judd jr., a.f. collector number: s.n. Oahu BISH 11/7/1936
34 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Secondary vegetation in old pastureland w/ Panicum maximum and scattered Samanea saman and Bauhinia monandra trees PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Hawaii BISH
35 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Munro, G.C. 511 Lanai BISH 2/11/1930
36 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Associated with wiliwili, Canthium, Dodonaea, Diospyros, etc. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Garnett, W. 89-2 Lanai BISH 2/20/1989
37 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN flynn, t. collector number: 3434 Kauai BISH 6/6/1989
38 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN waimea arboretum waimea arboretum s.n. #1 MO 9/15/1997
39 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Cultivated plants. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Tim Flynn 4895 Kauai PTBG 2/25/1992
40 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Cultivated plants. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Tim Flynn 3434 Kauai PTBG 6/6/1989
41 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Tim Flynn s.n. Kauai PTBG 4/25/1989
42 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information In Diospyros sandwicensis lowland dry forest. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Steve Perlman 6405 Lanai PTBG 8/31/1987
43 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information Lowland mixed dry to mesic forest. PRESERVED_SPECIMEN K. R. Wood 338 Lanai PTBG 5/15/1990
44 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN Bob Hobdy 3016 Lanai PTBG 2/20/1989
45 Abutilon eremitopetalum Caum Contact Bishop Museum Botany department for locality information PRESERVED_SPECIMEN palmer, r.; orr, d. CM 1/4/2004